The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: Introduction

Posted: June 17, 2014 - 15:32 , by Robert Mason
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World Culture, Archaeology, From the Field, Research | Comments (0) | Comment
View of the old monastery buildings from the South in 2004, with then Brother Jihad, a member of the monastery.

Deir Mar Musa, or the Monastery of St. Moses, can be found about 90 km north of Damascus in the desert Qalamoun Mountains, isolated between the road from Damascus to Homs/Hama/Aleppo and the road from Damascus to Palmyra-Tadmor. It's recent history probably begins with Canadian scholar Erica Dodd who undertook a study of the mediaeval frescoes in what were then largely abandoned buildings. An early paper of Dodd's was read by Italian Jesuit Paolo Dall'Oglio, who came to the site in 1982. Dall'Oglio refounded a monastery there, and a new monastic order: al-Khalil. Al-Khalil is a reference to the Qur'anic epithet for Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman, or "Friend of the Merciful (God)" and is a direct link to the prophet seen as the founder of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Hence Dall'Oglio saw the monastery as a centre of interfaith dialogue. Through the 1980's and subsequently volunteers helped to refurbish the derelict structures. During the restoration work objects were found from the earlier occupation and are stored at the monastery in a small museum. This has included coins, glass, wood, wax candles, metal, but above all, pottery.

View of Deir Mar Musa in 2004 from the main approach in the East, with the old buildings at the centre, and to the right the new buildings created using traditional materials and techniques.

View of Deir Mar Musa in 2004 from the main approach in the East, with the old buildings at the centre, and to the right the new buildings created using traditional materials and techniques. The men of the al-Khalil order sleep in the new buildings, the women sleep in the old buildings.

Father Paolo Dall'Oglio in the new buildings in 2004, behind him is a large cave that may actually have been the original focus of the complex.

Father Paolo Dall'Oglio in the new buildings in 2004, behind him is a large cave that may actually have been the original focus of the complex.

The view in 2004 from the monastery to the East, across the Syrian desert.

The view in 2004 from the monastery to the East, across the Syrian desert. 

In 2002 I was working on another site in Syria, Tell al-Acharneh, and at the end of the season did some travelling around Syria to look at other archaeological sites. A colleague of mine at the British Museum had suggested that I visit his niece, Emma Loosley, who was living at the monastery of Deir Mar Musa. I had been working in Syria since 1998, mostly on excavations in Aleppo, but had successfully avoided being responsible for fieldwork myself until then. Being responsible is a lot of work that has nothing to do with archaeology, it requires extra trips to have tea at the ministry, and a lot of diplomacy. My research was on the pottery made in the Middle East between about 600 and 1800 AD, and it suited me to be able to go to different sites and study their pottery rather than get stuck on one. It turned out that Emma was actually an archaeologist, but one that specialised in the Byzantine period, and who was responsible for excavations at another monastery site, also part of the al-Khalil community, at al-Qaryatayn, on the road between Damascus and Palmyra.

On the terrace at Deir Mar Musa in 2004: Byzantine archaeologist Emma Lossley (left) and members of the al-Khalil community, then Brother Jihad Yusuf (later Deacon and then Father), a Maronite from Wadi Nasara, and then novice (later Sister) Deema Fayyad, a member of the Greek Catholic Church from Homs

On the terrace at Deir Mar Musa in 2004: Byzantine archaeologist Emma Lossley (left) and members of the al-Khalil community, then Brother Jihad Yusuf (later Deacon and then Father), a Maronite from Wadi Nasara, and then novice (later Sister) Deema Fayyad, a member of the Greek Catholic Church from Homs . In Arabic, "jihad" really means "struggle" and is a not uncommon personal name.

As it turned out Deir Mar Musa had pottery, a very interesting group of fragments of 14th century pottery, pottery that they needed someone like me to study, and I still suspect that my colleague at the British Museum was setting me up. There was too much to study in a day trip that was to cover a number of other sites as well, so I promised to return another year. In 2004 I returned to study the pottery. That year as I studied the pottery, Father Paolo persuaded me to undertake a fuller archaeological project on the monastery, as Emma was committed to al-Qaryatayn, and Mar Musa also clearly had a lot of mediaeval architecture, which is my period. He talked a lot about God's will and the Canadian connection, due to Erica Dodd. He also talked about creating a museum, one that contained archaeology, but also one that talked about the desert environment of the monastery, as they were intent on re-greening the area. I thought that this would be a good project for the ROM, a ROM in the desert so to speak, and my Natural History colleagues would join in the project to make the desert, and the world, a better place. Father Paolo is very persuasive. So I agreed, and started a project to do a full archaeological survey of the site and the area, and to build a museum

One of the fragments of pottery from the restoration work at Deir Mar Musa.

One of the fragments of pottery from the restoration work at Deir Mar Musa.

Although I hope that one day Paolo and I will both be able to return to Deir Mar Musa to continue our work, in the meantime it looks as though I will not be able to complete this work for some time. Some of my research at Deir Mar Musa has been published, some of it has not, and is too preliminary to publish anywhere other than in the informal venue of a blog. Hence over the next few weeks I will write a number of blogs reporting my work at Deir Mar Musa.

NAVIGATION (links will become hot as they are published)

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: Introduction

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: The Pottery

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: The Frescoes

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: The Cave Survey

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: The Buildings

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: The Prehistoric Remains

The Monastery of St Moses, Syria: Conclusion and Syria Today

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