Galleries of Africa: Nubia | Level 3

The Kingdom of Kush: The lost civilization of ancient Nubia. 

At one time, the ancient Nubian Kingdom of Kush covered the whole Nile Valley, from the Mediterranean Sea to the highlands of Ethiopia. The Nubian's writing system was the second oldest in Africa after Egyptian hieroglyphs, and they cultivated the first urban literary society in Africa south of the Sahara.  

Ancient Nubia was often overlooked as its neighbour, Egypt, received the majority of archaeological activity and scholarship. The ancient Nubian legacy is now fully appreciated thanks to recent and ongoing archaeological discoveries, with the integral participation of the ROM and its Senior Curator Dr. Krzysztof Grzymski.  

On June 25, 2011, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) added the site of Meroe to its list of World Heritage Sites. Videos inside the gallery take you into the field and document current ROM curatorial research. 

About the Gallery


This gallery sheds light on the ancient Nubian civilization that flourished in the Nile Valley for thousands of years. Gallery themes include: Rise of Kush; Meroe: the Royal City of Kush; End of the Kushite Empire and Religious Change in Nubia.  


A region alongside the Nile river, ancient Nubia encompassed parts of present-day Egypt, North Sudan, South Sudan, and Ethiopia.  


Approximately 100,000 BC to AD 1323.