Our Voices, Our Histories

On the left, "The Migration", acrylic painting by Norval Morrisseau. On the right, , "White Mud Portage", oil painting by Paul Kane.

The lands that make up Turtle Island, or North America, have been occupied since Time Immemorial by many diverse Indigenous Peoples, yet history resources are often told from Western perspectives. This ever-evolving timeline was created in a cooperative effort to tell the many stories about our shared history from different perspectives.

We will be continuously adding content to this timeline as the project grows.

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Indigenous Perspectives

Western Perspectives

Time Immemorial

Creation of the Earth

Formation of the Solar System


Vikings settle Newfoundland


Dorset encounter the Vikings


Five Nations form the Haudenosaunee Confederacy

Tekanawí:ta brings peace to the Five Nations


Christopher Columbus arrives in the Americas

John Cabot explores the northeastern coast


First Contact between Jacques Cartier and the Mi'kmaq

Trade between First Nations, Inuit and Europeans

Haudenosaunee save Jacques Cartier from scurvy


European fur trade established in North America

Champlain establishes first permanent European settlement

Innu knowledge helps Champlain settle Quebec

Indigenous fur trade expands to include Europeans

Treaty negotiations incorporate a calumet


Captain Cook arrives in Nootka Sound

Building Relationships through Gift-Giving and Treaties


Métis lead the "Northwest Resistance"

Confederation of Canada

The War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States

Tecumseh and Indigenous Peoples join the War of 1812

Formation of the Covenant Chain

Treaties incorporate annual payments


Modern Land Claims